Sunday, May 11, 2014

Wonders of Spiral Galaxies

The spiral shape of many galaxies is truly one of the more extraordinary mysteries of the universe. Most of the reason for dark matter comes from the constant rotation of all galaxies, however the constant rotation of a galaxy is simply a manifestation of quantum gravity.

The product of a mass decay, kg/s, and a velocity, m/s, is dimensionally a force and each star in a galaxy has a mass decay due to its radiation as well as a velocity. So each star has an extra force due to its matter decay and those force vectors couple with the galaxy rotation as spiral density waves. This coupling moves angular momentum from inner to outer stars and that coupling explains why galaxies rotate at constant velocity.

The spiral density waves of galaxies mean that there is no mystery of dark matter necessary to hold galaxies together. The Whirlpool galaxy (below, M51a) has spiral features with reported pitch angles mA = 16.7°, mB = 15.8°, while the dashed rectangle has the proportions of the golden ratio, 1.62. The golden ratio rectangle is quite well known in the aesthetics of architecture and art and encloses a golden spiral with a pitch of 17.0°. Why average pitch of galaxies is the golden spiral pitch seems more than just a coincidence.

The central bulge of a galaxy, the arrowed circle, is the dynamo that drives galaxy structure and dynamics and with just Einstein's gravity and without the mystery of dark matter, all galaxies would fly apart. The supermassive black hole at the center is therefore somehow tied to the destiny of both the central bulge and the outer spiral disk in a mysterious cosmic ballet that science barely understands. The tens of thousands of light years across a galaxy are the time equivalents of tens of thousands of years separating events anywhere within the galaxy.